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Crystals forms of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and agrochemicals

Design and synthesis of molecular solid state structures with desired properties is a goal of crystal engineering and a subject of significant interest for pharmaceutical companies, especially when dealing with APIs, which are often characterized by limited bioavailability. A thorough understanding of the relevant non-covalent interactions at work between molecules and ions in pure molecular solids, solvates, co-crystals and ionic co-crystals of APIs allows, at least in principle, to modify the physical and chemical properties of a drug. When ionizable groups are present, salt formation is the method most commonly employed to improve the solubility of a poorly soluble API; inclusion of solvent, especially water, in the crystalline edifice, often accompanies the salt formation, but the phenomenon is more general and not limited to salts. A control on the crystal forms resulting from a manufacturing process is also crucial, as final properties of an API may dramatically and unexpectedly change upon solvent loss or addition, or due to appearance of polymorphic modifications.