the project

Cyclists suffer a disproportionate share of serious injuries and fatalities, and indeed in recent years that disadvantage has been growing. At the same time, they often are not treated equally by traffic systems.

The Horizon 2020 EU-funded XCYCLE Project produced technologies aimed at improving active and passive detection of cyclists, systems informing both drivers and cyclists of an hazard at junctions, effective methods of presenting information in vehicles and on-site and cooperation systems aimed at reducing collisions with cyclists.

An in-vehicle detection system and a system of threat mitigation and risk avoidance by traffic signals have been created, as well as a demo bicycle with a cooperative technology. All innovative and integrated solutions have been tested and verified through use cases in the city of Braunschweig (DE) and on a mobile platform.

The development process adopted a user-centred approach and conducted behavioural evaluation, using eye tracking data and an evaluation of human-machine interface. In the Cost-Benefit Analysis, behavioural changes have been translated into estimated crashes and casualties saved per system.

The project has been achieved by a highly multidisciplinary consortium, composed by a well-balanced team with complementary expertise across different topics and a range of backgrounds: behavioural scientists, engineers, ICT experts. It included two research institutes, three universities, three Larger companies and one SME.

The XCYCLE project has contributed to innovative, efficient and advanced safety measures to reduce the number of accidents, often of high severity, involving cyclists in interaction with motorised vehicles. Knowledge and tools provided by this project will continue on promoting the development of the European Road Safety Observatory (ERSO) and responded to the Transport White Paper's "Vision Zero" objectives.

The XCYCLE Project started on June 1st, 2015 and, after three years of enthusiastic work, it has ended its activities on November 2018.

XCYCLE Consortium

Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna

Almost 1000 years old, the University of Bologna (UNIBO) is known as the oldest University of the western world. Nowadays, UNIBO still remains one of the most important institutions of higher education across Europe, the second largest university in Italy and is the first Italian university for the attractiveness of European funding for research. In the XCYCLE Project, UNIBO was ultimately responsible for the overall project coordination and act as intermediary between all parties. In addition to project management, UNIBO analysed data regarding types of accidents between bicycles and motorized vehicles, it Investigated and develop bicycle-based technology enabling collaborative sensing, and it increased the visibility of the project output in the scientific community of reference.

ITS - University of Leeds

The University of Leeds is a leading UK research university. The Institute for Transport Studies (ITS) at the University of Leeds undertakes research ranging from blue skies exploration of new ideas and concepts, to targeted commissions for specific clients. ITS has over 50 research-active staff and around 50 research students, is one of the world’s largest academic centres for transport research, and has consistently been awarded the highest possible rating for the quality of its work. The Safety and Technology group at ITS has researchers in psychology, physiology, engineering and social science working to improve the understanding of road users’ behaviour in order to develop and assess new techniques for contributing to a safer, cleaner and more efficient transport network. The group has led projects on the safety assessment of new transport technologies and has pioneered research on intelligent speed adaptation (ISA). In the XCYCLE project, The University of Leeds was responsible for leading on the design of the in-vehicle HMI. Its Driving Simulator will provide an ideal environment for development and testing.


Safety has been guiding star of the Volvo Group since the foundation in 1927. Volvo founders stated that “Safety is and must be the basic principle in all design work”. Today, the trucks and buses produced by the Volvo Group are among the safest in the world. But this not enough. The ultimate goal for the company is zero accidents with Volvo Group products and this vision of zero accidents guides all product development. To reach this vision it is important to find ways to better protect vulnerable road users like pedestrians and bicyclists. Volvo Group do research within several different technology areas that could be used in the XCYCLE project to make bicycle interaction with large vehicles at intersections safer. VOLVO contributed to the problem identification as well as specification, development and integration of vehicle-based solutions, addressing the question of vulnerable road user safety as a manufacturer of heavy goods vehicles.


DLR is the German national research centre and agency for space and aeronautics. Four future-oriented fields of research form the key areas of DLR activities: aeronautics, astronautics, transportation and energy technology, with transportation being the key growth area. DLR’s budget is being financed by government funds as well as private contracts. DLR has a staff of 8000 employees working in 32 institutes and facilities at 16 sites in Germany. At the Institute of Transportation Systems at the DLR sites Braunschweig and Berlin about 150 researchers are working in the departments for automotive systems, traffic management, railway systems and intermodal travelling. The main tasks of DLR attributed in the project are in WP4 to WP6. In WP4, DLR is mainly responsible for developing the infrastructure-based threat assessment system based on trajectory and communication based information, as well as developing the infrastructure-based part of the V2X communication platform. DLR is coordinator of WP5 and, in particular, has got the integrator role for the infrastructure-based demonstrator components. In WP6, DLR studies real world traffic scenarios to analyze traffic behaviour for validating the project’s results.

University of Groningen

The University of Groningen provides high quality research and teaching in a broad and varied range of fields of study. It is distinguished for the close link the University has forged between research and teaching, a bond that is internationally oriented and does justice to their interdependence. Within XCYCLE, the University of Groningen will integrate information from literature and on-site locations and will keep on evaluating the safe cycling concept throughout the project. Due to its large experience in experimental evaluation of behavioural response to technology, it evaluated the effects of systems on user (bicyclist’s) behaviour, and their behavioural adaptation to systems. Also of special groups (e.g. patients), and experience in naturalistic cycling techniques


VTI is an independent research institute dedicated to the continuous development of knowledge in the transport sector. It covers all modes of transport, and the subjects of pavement technology, infrastructure maintenance, vehicle technology, traffic safety, traffic analysis, users of the transport system, the environment, the planning and decision making processes, transport economics and transport systems. In the XCYCLE project, the main role of VTI as leader of WP6 - Evaluation of the integrated system lies within a scientific evaluation of the project’s safety systems, both during the development phase and after implementation.


Dynniq is a European technical service provider delivering total solutions for the traffic and specialised parts of the infrastructural market. It combines electrical and mechanical engineering and ICT to the best solutions for moving people, materials, energy and data flows, operating in the domains of dynamic traffic management, intelligent transportation systems, traffic safety and enforcement, technical infrastructure, public lighting, energy and parking management. To ensure intimate contact with the leading edge of new and innovative technology in these markets, the Technology Centre has an extremely active Research team that is involved in many European and national government driven projects. In the XCYCLE project, Dynniq investigated, developed and evaluated traffic control algorithms that are to improve the safety situation for cyclists.

KITE Solutions

KITE Solutions is a SME, established in 2003, with the goals of designing, commercialising and implementing technological solutions in domains with advanced automation and safety critical human machine interfaces. Main expertise lies in engineering, risk assessment and cognitive sciences, and in databases development, management and statistical analysis for accident investigations and development of professional software solutions for knowledge management and Human-Machine Systems integration in different transport domains. In the XCYCLE Project, KITE Solutions developed, implemented and evaluated a dynamic risk assessment element/module able to communicate potential hazards and to support the decision making process of all involved users. KITE Solutions also managed and fulfil the project Dissemination and Exploitation activities.


In its Traffic Solutions division, Jenoptik develops, manufactures and markets components and systems that increase road traffic safety throughout the world. The product portfolio, which is based on the proven Robot technology, includes comprehensive systems for all aspects of road traffic, such as speed and red-light monitoring systems as well as OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) products and systems for detecting traffic violations.
In the services area, the Jenoptik division covers every aspect of the support process chain – from system development, construction and installation of the monitoring infrastructure, to capturing images of infringements and their automatic processing, through to issuing the citations and collecting the fines as the system operator. As a global supplier of traffic solutions it is the goal of Jenoptik Traffic Solutions to maximize road safety by creating preventive solutions. To reach this goal, the research and technological transfer activities concentrate on the detection, tracking and classification of motorized and non-motorized road users. In the XCYCLE project, Jenoptik Traffic Solutions’ main contribution was a technical solution for monitoring an intersection. This infrastructure-based, multi-sensor vehicle/VRU detection system evaluated all information about traffic conditions and road users, testing new algorithms for traffic detection, tracking and classification of objects by the surrounding infrastructure.